Photovoltaic modules of the same type are connected in parallel to form a parallel photovoltaic array, as shown in Figure 1. m(m≥2) battery modules are connected in parallel, the voltages on the battery modules are Vz1, Vz2, .. ., Vzm, the output currents are lz1, Iz2, …, Izm, and the output voltage of the parallel […]

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## Analysis of electrical characteristics of photovoltaic cell array

① Equivalent mathematical model of photovoltaic arrayA single photovoltaic cell module is composed of multiple photovoltaic cells in series and in parallel. If the characteristics of each photovoltaic cell in the cell module match, under the same temperature condition and the light is uniform, the engineering mathematical model of the photovoltaic cell moduleIt can be […]

## Analysis of the electrical characteristics of photovoltaic cells

① Equivalent mathematical model of photovoltaic cellA typical equivalent circuit of a photovoltaic cell is shown in Figure 1, and its output characteristic equation can be described by equation (1): IPV=IPC﹣Io{exp[(q/nckcT)(VPV＋RSIPV)]﹣1}﹣(VPV＋RSIPV/Rsh) （1） In the formula, Io is the PN junction reverse saturation current of the equivalent diode inside the photovoltaic cell, and the mathematical expression […]

## What is Digital Phase Locked Loop Technology?

As more and more photovoltaic grid-connected power generation systems are connected to the grid, the power quality of the grid is getting more and more attention. For photovoltaic grid-connected power generation systems to achieve reliable grid connection without current impact, the filtered inverter output voltage must be consistent with the amplitude, phase, and frequency of […]

## Islanding Phenomenon and Detection Method of Islanding Protection Technology

⑴Islanding phenomenon and protection standardsWhen the public grid is cut off or the distributed power generation (DG) system is disconnected from the public grid, the distributed power generation system continues to work and forms a self-sufficient island system with the surrounding loads.As shown in Figure 1, a typical photovoltaic grid-connected power generation system includes a […]

## The essence of maximum power point tracking

Since the PV characteristic of photovoltaic modules is a single-peak nonlinear curve, the maximum power point of the photovoltaic array composed of its series and parallel connections will also be affected by the light intensity and the surface temperature of the photovoltaic array. Therefore, how to track the maximum power point of the photovoltaic array […]

## Classification of photovoltaic cells according to photovoltaic materials

According to the materials used, photovoltaic cells can be divided into silicon photovoltaic cells, multi-compound photovoltaic cells and organic semiconductor photovoltaic cells, etc. ⑴Silicone photovoltaic cell①Single crystal silicon photovoltaic cellMonocrystalline silicon photovoltaic cells are manufactured from high-purity monocrystalline silicon wafers. The appearance of the cells and components is shown in Figure 1. The processing technology […]

## Principles and classification of photovoltaic cells

①Principle of photovoltaic cellPhotovoltaic cell is a kind of semiconductor device based on the photovoltaic effect of semiconductor materials, which has the function of directly converting sunlight energy into electrical energy output. Most photovoltaic cells are usually PN junction photovoltaic cells composed of P-type semiconductors and N-type semiconductors. Through the diffusion process, an N-type area […]