① Equivalent mathematical model of photovoltaic cellA typical equivalent circuit of a photovoltaic cell is shown in Figure 1, and its output characteristic equation can be described by equation (1): IPV=IPC﹣Io{exp[(q/nckcT)(VPV＋RSIPV)]﹣1}﹣(VPV＋RSIPV/Rsh) （1） In the formula, Io is the PN junction reverse saturation current of the equivalent diode inside the photovoltaic cell, and the mathematical expression […]